Referencing and Citation

This guide aims to provide quick guides on the basics of different formats of Referencing and Citation.

Borrowing others’ words and ideas in your own work without crediting the sources, either intentionally or unintentionally, is a serious academic and ethical offence known as Plagiarism. Referencing refers to the proper citation or acknowledgement for quoted source materials, paraphrased ideas and translation of other sources, etc. Referencing also proves your firm understanding of the subject and of your research.

Choosing a Suitable Style
The choice of citation style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. Check with your course instructor for the preferred citation style if you are not sure.

Some commonly used styles are:


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Last edited: December 2018
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American Psychological Association (APA) Style
This guide provides quick reference to the American Psychological Association (APA) Style.
About the American Psychological Association (APA) Style
In-text parenthetical citations of author(s) last name, publication year, and cited pages, followed by a reference.

In-text citation
Nonrestrictive relative clauses are used to be parenthetic and introduced by conjunctions to indicate place or time (Strunk & White, 2000).
Strunk and White (2000) indicates “Nonrestrictive relative clauses are parenthetic, as are similar clauses introduced by conjunctions indicating time or place.”

In reference list
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style (4th ed.) New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon.